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How is light created?

The Human Collective
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Published on 27 Sep 2022 / In Science

How are photons generated? What can the energy of these photons tell us about how they were created? What is the difference between an emission and absorption spectrum? How are they generated? These are critical tools that are used to analyse the light we receive from stars and galaxies but as you will see there are several mechanisms that can change the spectra.

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References:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stark_effect
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Atomic/stark.html
https://chem.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry_Textbook_Maps/Supplemental_Modules_(Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry)/Quantum_Tutorials_(Rioux)/Approximate_Quantum__Mechanical_Methods/451%3A_First_Order_Degenerate_Perturbation_Theory_-_the_Stark_Effect_of_the_Hydrogen_Atom
http://www.thunderbolts.info/tpod/2010/arch10/100209protogalaxies.htm
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absorption_spectroscopy
https://www.nature.com/articles/1281076a0.pdf
https://122.physics.ucdavis.edu/sites/default/files/files/Zeeman%20Effect/zeeman_effect_guide.pdf
https://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0512111
https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.2909127
https://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/electric_universe/electric_sky06.htm
https://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1956ApJ...124..655B
https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/chemistry/bremsstrahlung
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/264561254_Stark_broadening_models_for_plasma_diagnostics
https://www.nature.com/articles/140162a0
http://zuserver2.star.ucl.ac.uk/~pmw/courses/phas2525/S03notes.pdf

MASERS and LASERs
https://www.laserfocusworld.com/test-measurement/research/article/16553618/natural-laser-discovered-in-space
https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1070/QE2002v032n12ABEH002349
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astrophysical_maser
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0167732214002141

00:00 Introduction
00:31 Emission spectrum
01:24 Absorption spectrum
03:41 Forbidden lines
05:25 Stimulated emissions
06:25 Zeeman effect
07:30 Stark effect
09:27 Bremsstrahlung
10:35 Synchrotron radiation
10:50 Cyclotron radiation
11:01 Free-free radiation
11:15 Bound-bound and free-bound radiation
11:31 Gamma emissions
12:11 Beta plus decay

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